GSEII is a consortium of international NGOs and multilateral institutions coordinated by the Climate Institute to meet a common goal. Besides the Climate Institute, major partners include the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Energy and Security Group (ESG).
The impetus for GSEII came due to a 1998 request from the Chairman of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) to the Climate Institute for assistance in implementing the provisions of the 1994 Barbados Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. Initial funding for GSEII was received from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and from the UN Foundation as administered by the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
Inter-American Development Bank has been developing various projects regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Caribbean islands. IDB projects per country can be accessed in an online map. Those projects are Péligre Hydroelectric Plant Rehabilitation Program, in Jamaica; Supplementary Financing for the Péligre Hydroelectric Plant, and Rehabilitation of the Electricity Distribution System in Haiti; Electricity Distribution Network Rehabilitation Program in Dominican Republic; Sustainable Energy Investment Program and Public Sector Smart Energy Program in Barbados.
Other IDB developed programs related to energy efficiency and renewable energy in island nations are the following:
Support for CARILEC’s Climate Change Adaptation & Sustainable Energy Programming
CARILEC is an association of utility companies in the Caribbean. This IDB program aims to provide the companies a direction in how to improve their environmental performance by developing strategies to increase their resilience to climate change. This initiative is a non-reimbursable technical cooperation. In addition, the program is an energy efficiency and renewable energy program, contracted in June 2014 under a total cost of $596,625 USD. The countries counterpart sums an amount of $120,000 USD.
Caribbean Climate Smart Islands Program
This program aims to pinpoint in which areas “low carbon and climate resilient measures can be implemented”. This program is already being implemented as a pilot in Belize and The Bahamas. It has a total cost of $1,240,000 USD and a country counterpart of $248,000 USD. This is also a non-reimbursable IDB technical cooperation program. Click here to learn more.
Family Islands Electrification Program
This IDB project aims to establish adequate power plants in family islands. It is very likely that diesel and other fossil fuels will be used in many places. Other alternative renewable energy sources, however, are possible and encouraged. This program has been approved but has not yet been implemented. It will cost an estimated $31,830,000 USD. Click here for more information.
IDB has also been developing the Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Initiative (SECCI), through which the Bank tries to set sustainability standards. IDB aims to guarantee the access to existing technologies, making them economically viable to the countries, and thus fostering social equity and environmental integrity. Like GSEII, Climate change resilience is one of the SECCI’s targets. The four pillars of this initiative are (1) Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, (2) Sustainable Biofuel Development, (3) Access to Carbon Markets and (4) Adaptation to Climate Change.
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) is an intergovernmental organisation of Eastern Caribbean States that has been working to shift the energy policies in member States towards alternative renewable sources, such as solar, wind and geothermal. It is also one of OECS goals to ensure that those sources can be economically competitive. Through its Sustainable Energy Unit, OECS works to improve energy efficiency in the Caribbean countries, focusing on energy efficiency in buildings. Energy Regulation (ECERA) and Geothermal Energy development are also relevant topics for the Unit.
Some of the current projects OECS supports are: Sustainable Energy Technical Assistance (SETA), which includes regulation, national strategies and action plans, as well as media production for public awareness; Eastern Caribbean Energy Labelling Project (ECELP), an energy efficiency project that works to set standards for lightning equipments and household appliances. It was funded by the German GIZ and was formally concluded in 2014; and Eastern Caribbean Energy Regulatory Agency (ECERA), focused on fostering investments in renewable energy and energy regulation. It was funded by the World Bank and might be concluded in 2016.
One of OECS current programmes are the OECS Building Code. OECS elaborated a Building Code (2015) to meet a certain energy efficiency standards, with low Carbon Dioxide emissions and energy consumption, giving preference to renewable sources. “Currently activities led by OECS Commission are ongoing with the aim to strengthen the enforcement of the building code.” Complementary, The Building Energy Efficiency Program (BEEP) aims to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The pilot project happened in OECS Commission’s own building and has already saved 20% of electricity. This program might be broadened to a regional scale. Finally, the Geothermal Energy programme is a way of supporting and fostering the development of renewable energy production. It began as a result of the OECS Commission’s intention on leading “the process on the development of a regional strategy for geothermal development in the OECS.”
Sources: “About us,” OECS. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.oecs.org/index.php/homepage/about-us; “Energy,” OECS. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.oecs.org/index.php/topics/energy; “Programmes,” OECS. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.oecs.org/index.php/seu-programmes.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an international community of Caribbean countries. It extends from The Bahamas in the north to Suriname and Guyana in South America. Its Energy Programme emerged in 2008, aiming to give a programmatic approach to the energy sector development in the region, instead of the usual projectized approach. The Programme also intends to harmonize energy issues in the community and is executed by the Energy Unit at the CARICOM Secretariat in Greater Georgetown, Guyana, South America.
The goal of CARICOM Energy Program is to
“increase regional energy security and advance the transformation of the Region’s energy sector towards a more sustainable energy developmental path (through the implementation of a regional energy policy and a regional sustainable energy strategy), thereby playing a catalytic role in regional economic integration, economic growth and development.” (See full text here).
Sources: “Who we are,” CARICOM. Accessed November 07, 2016, http://caricom.org/about-caricom/who-we-are; “Energy,” CARICOM. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.caricom.org/our-work/energy; “Energy Programme,” CARICOM. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://caricom.org/energy-programme/.
The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC)
The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) is responsible for coordinating the Caribbean region countries’ response to climate change. It provides information on climate change issues for the Caribbean countries to assist them on adapting, managing and responding to climate change.
CCCCC has been developing the Caribbean Regional Resilience Development Implementation Plan (IP) from 2011 to 2016. This is a climate change resilience oriented plan that aims to tackle the new challenges that those islands are facing and might face in a more pronounced way in the next years or decades. The rise of the average ocean temperature, as well as the sea level in the 20th century have been causing important disturbances in the Caribbean population livelihood. Some of the threats to which this population is subject to are: salt water intrusion that can affect fresh water reserves, deteriorating coastal conditions such as coral bleaching and reduction of fishing stocks, and an increasing frequency of natural disasters, such as floods and storms.
Thus, the project funded by Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland aims to:
“Expand knowledge and capacities through evidenced adaptation initiatives, and strengthen institutions for greater climate security; Scale up delivery of adaptation programmes in a range of key vulnerable sectors that are critical for sustained and expanded livelihoods; and Support effective national, regional and international level climate architecture to deliver climate change/adaptation financing.” (Click here for more information).
CCCCC is also developing the Coastal Protection for Climate Change Adaptation in the Small Island States in the Caribbean that might last until 2018. The initiative is financially supported by German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and aims “To improve ecosystem services that reduces the impact of climate change on coastal areas.” This is an initiative that tackles the degradation of coral reefs, because those are being strongly impacted by the increase of the ocean temperature, as well as by the absorption of Carbon Dioxide by sea water (blue carbon), that alters the water’s pH (acidity level). The participating countries are Saint Lucia, Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Jamaica.
Sources: “About CCCCC,” CCCCC. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://caribbeanclimate.bz/about-us/about-us.html; “2014-2018 Coastal Protection for Climate Change Adaptation in the Small Island States in the Caribbean (KfW),” CCCCC. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.caribbeanclimate.bz/ongoing-projects/2014-2019-coastal-protection-for-climate-change-adaptation-in-the-small-island-states-in-the-caribbean-kfw.html.
Rocky Mountain Institute
“Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) is an independent, nonpartisan nonprofit that drives the efficient and restorative use of resources.” (Learn more at the official website). RMI works with market-based solutions to concretize a cost-effective shift towards renewable energy sources, engaging the stakeholders involved or affected by the transition processes. The RMI Islands Program comprehend more than 20 projects that aim to find bankable renewable energy and energy efficiency solutions.
Regarding this Program, RMI has been developing projects on energy efficiency and solar energy (the 250 kW Providencia (Colombia) Hospital Solar and Energy Efficiency Project; the LED Street Lighting Projects in Bahamas, Belize, Montserrat, San Andres (Colombia), St. Lucia, and St. Vincent; and the Bahamas National Sporting Complex Energy Efficiency and Solar Project), on microgrid development (the 10 MW Bahamas Family Islands Solar and Storage Project; the 8 MW Grenadines Solar and Storage Project; the St George’s Caye, Belize Microgrid; and the Turks and Caicos Microgrids), and on renewable energy generation (3.2 MW St. Lucia Utility Solar; 1 MW Montserrat Solar and Storage; 12 MW San Andres (Colombia) Utility Wind; 3 MW San Andres (Colombia) Utility Solar; Geothermal Projects in Montserrat, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia; 4 MW Seychelles Floating Marine Solar; 5 MW Aruba Solar for Schools; 1 MW Anguilla Utility Solar; 26.4 MW Aruba Utility Wind; 1 MW Turks and Caicos Utility Solar). The entire description of RMI’s recent projects can be found under the following link.
The Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
The SPREP is responsible for sustainable development in the Pacific region, as well as the protection of its environment. SPREP is based in Apia, Samoa.
American Samoa, Australia, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Kingdom, United States of America, Vanuatu and Wallis and Futuna are the current member states of SPREP. SPREP strategic priorities are: “Climate Change; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management; Waste Management and Pollution Control; and Environmental Monitoring and Governance.”
Climate Change strategic priority aims to increase the members’ resilience to climate change through changes in national policies and adaption measures, targeting the development of low carbon economies. SPREP has been developing programs on Climate Change policies and National Communications. Also, its Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change (PIFACC) is very oriented towards Climate Change adaptation and strengthening partnerships.
Sources: “About us,” SPREP. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.sprep.org/about-us.
The Pacific Community (SPC)
The Pacific Community (SPC) is a scientific and technical organisation established in 1947. It is an international development organisation composed of 26 members, which includes both countries and territories. Among SPC programs are The GeoScience for Development Programme (G4D) and the Technical Support Services. The former takes a data-based approach to tackle climate change and improve natural resources management, while the later includes Natural Resource Economics, GIS and Remote Sensing, Technical Equipment and Services, Data Management, Publications and Library. The Technical Support Services are specifically developed by SOPAC, the Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission, a division of SPC located in Suva, Fiji.
Sources: “Mission and Vision,” Pacific Community. Accessed November 07, 2016, http://www.spc.int/en/about-spc.html; “GeoScience for Development Programme,” Pacific Community. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://gsd.spc.int/gsd-programmes/geoscience-for-development-programme; “Technical Support Services,” Pacific Community. Accessed November 07, 2016, http://gsd.spc.int/gsd-programmes/technical-support-services; “Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC),” Global Water Partnership. Accessed November 06, 2016, http://www.gwp.org/en/Our-approach/Strategic-Allies/South-Pacific-Applied-Geoscience-Commission-SOPAC/.